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There could be some leakage current or voltage in the circuit…try connecting a resistance of suitable value to eliminate effect of residual voltage or current on the LED strip
you must try using interrupts instead of standard library functions. implementation of standard library functions involves variable propagation delays on chip that make getting precice results harder.
PLC use logic ladders. However, logic gates can be implemented on PLC using ladder diagrams. the problem given to you can be solved using ladder logic with a proper flowchart to solve the problem
555 ic is a timer IC. it works in three modes – monostable, bistable and astable. it is generally used to generate pulse waveforms or provide time delays.
opamp is used in several applications… the most common of which include amplification of DC voltage and comparison of voltage. voltage comparison feature of opamp is commonly used in robotics…opamp has many practical applications like phase shifting, amplification, voltage comparison, scale changing, current to voltage conversion, differetiator, integrator, rectifier etc.
can try a pre-amplifier circuit like the one here – engineersgarage.com/contribution/designing-pre-amplifier-using-lm358-99
calibration of IR sensors with OPAMP is a common issue in line follower projects. try setting a low reference voltage to OPAMP and make sure output from IR sensor is greater than reference voltage if opamp is configured in non-inverting fashion…can also try a transitor amplifier to boost signal from IR sensors
BJT is current controllled and MOSFET is voltage controlled…So BJT is used where current is a factor while MOSFET is useful in a circuit where voltage is a deciding factor. For prototyping simple circuits on breadboard and beginner level, BJT is mostly used due to low cost… most production circuits use MOSFET due to low response time and compatibility in power electronic applications
Zener diode works like a normal diode except that normal diode only conducts in one direction while zener can conduct current in reverse bias condition after the reverse voltage reaches a threshold called zener voltage. It has high doping level that causes the phenomenon of avalanche breakdown. Zener in reverse bias do not conduct till applied voltage is less than zener voltage but start conducting (like if it is forward biased) after applied voltage exceeds zener voltage..that is why zener is useful in chopping voltage from a desired level….